Nepal has a unique culture which has evolved since many years.It’s culture is greatly influenced by religion, architecture, music and literature.In Nepal, we can find various temples, churches, monasteries and many other religious buildings.There are many ethic groups, tribal and social groups in Nepal.Different type of festivals and practices are seen in Nepal.Nepal got its name from the Kathmandu valley as the founder of the nation established a capital there in eighteenth century itself.
The country is spread over an area of 381,200 square kilometers.It is surrounded by three Indian states on south, west and east whereas the north border is shared by Tibet.Most of the Himalayan mountain ranges are in Nepal, including the Mt.Everest.The country is divided into three horizontal zones which are: the high mountains, the lush central hills, and the flat region with low water levels in the south.The trade factor has influenced the ethnic groups.There are more than thirty six ethnic groups and over fifty languages in Nepal.According to 1977 ,the population of Nepal is nearly 22.6 million.As the birth rate is gradually increasing in rural areas, people are migrated to cities.This lead to over population in Kathmandu, at present it is holding more than seven Lakh people.
Nepal consists of many cultural, racial, linguistic groups, that are mainly divided into three categories.Indo Napelese, Tibeto Nepalese and Indigenous Nepalese.Since centuries, they were practicing Hinduism and people speak Indo-Aryan languages.Most of these people settle in lower hills and river valleys.The second type is Tibeto Nepalese who have generally Mongolian features and they speak Tibeto Burmese languages.These people reside in hills and mountain areas.Different groups under Tibeto Nepalese practice Buddhism, Hinduism.Later these ethnic groups fell into single caste hierarchy.The first and the top most caste is Hindus, second is Matwalis who are generally alcohol drinking people.Bottom are the untouchable Hindu castes.Higher caste people buy lands and enjoy political and economic privileges whereas lower caste people are far from these opportunities.Untouchable castes were not permitted to own land.We know that the caste system is illegal, but it has not disappeared in many places.Most of the posts like civil services, army and police were selected by the higher caste people only.
Nepalese enjoy different food items that are generally hot, spicy and nutritious.Newari and Thakali cuisines are the original taste of Nepal.Generally Nepalese cooking style is influenced by both Indian cuisine and Tibetan cuisine.Nepalese staple food is daal bhat tarkari.Most of the tourists who visit Nepal like to have hot and spicy meat curries that are cooked in their style.The meal includes different varieties of food items and also pickle that is made out of fruits or vegetables are served.Most families eat from individual plates while seated on the floor.It is more common to eat food with hands rather than utensils.In Nepal, high caste people only eat vegetarian and do not take alcohol whereas other caste people may drink alcohol, eat pork and even beef.People of higher caste do not show interest to eat food that is prepared by strangers.
In Nepal there was no industrial development till the middle of the twentieth century.The industrial development is accomplished with the help of countries like India, China and Soviet Union.With the abundant availability of minerals, industrial development is made possible in Nepal.The major industries focused on was of jute, tea and sugar.Manufacturing of brick, tiles, construction materials, paper making, vegetable oil extraction, sugar refining and many more industries are established in Nepal.
The trade of Nepal mostly depends on the neighboring countries -India and China.Major of the goods are imported from India.Goods transportation is limited by the terrain.Nepal import gold, machinery and other equipment.In Nepal although roads and modern transport are available, much of the country goods are transported by porters and pack animals.Generally this type of transport is used where landslides and flooding is more.Not only imports ,but Nepal is also famous for exports of goods like carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute, and grain.Apart from these, Nepal is famous for tourism which is another primary export.
Medicine and health care:
Nepal suffers from malnutrition, infant mortality,respiratory and intestinal diseases.In Nepal, average expectation of life span is fifty seven years.Being very poor , unhygienic and lack of health care, the hospitals are available only in urban areas.But these hospitals are also poorly equipped and unhygienic.Few medicines are also not available in rural areas.There are few western hospitals, but the poor cannot afford them because of high costs.People still believe in religious practitioners and they approach them if they have any health problems.Hence, few people look at Ayurvedic medicines.As they think that illness is caused due to the imbalance of body hormones, they try to balance them using proper diet.Recently malaria is eradicated in Nepal.So at present, health development is concentrated on immunization, birth control, and basic medical care.