Mizoram is one of the north-eastern sate of India.Aizawl is the capital city of Mizoram.The name Mizoram is derived from the words “Mi which means people” , “Zo which means hill” and “Ram which means land”.Thus the name itself conveys that it is a land of hill people.It has three bordering states namely Tripura, Assam and Manipur.The state acts as a border for two countries Bangladesh and Myanmar.According to census 2011 the state had a population of about 10,91,014.It is one of the least populous state in the country.It covers an area of approximately 21,087 square kilometer.Before 1987 it is an integral part of Assam.After 1987 it it formed as a 23rd state in India.In Mizoram most of the people are tribal and many of them belong to Christianity.Most of the people took Christianity during 20th century.It is one of the three states in India that is having majority of the people are Christians.People of Mizoram practice shifting cultivation and the crop yields are poor.In recent years, the jhum farming practices are being replaced with horticulture and bamboo products industry.About 20% of the Mizoram’s population lives below poverty line.
MIzoram consists number of hills and valleys.Being on the hills and valleys all the villages are located on the hills itself.About 21 hills are present with an average height of 1000 meters above the sea level.The highest peak in Mizoram is Phawngpui Tlang with a height of 7,250 feet.Most of the area is covered by forests and only eight percent is land.The sate is having the highest risk of getting earthquakes compared to other parts of India.
Mizoram experiences very low temperatures in any season.During summer the temperature ranges from 20 to 29 °C and in winter temperatures ranges from 7 to 22 °C.In monsoons this region experiences heavy rainfall.The average rainfall in Mizoram is about 254 cm in moist tropical to moist sub-tropical regions.Whereas in the capital city Aizawl it is about 215 cm.It is better for the tourists to visit during November to March.
Different types of groups and languages can be seen in Mizoram.As most of the people are tribal, they are known as hill men.Bengali’s who had settled in Mizoram during 16th century are called as Kukis.In Mizoram there are many tribes who are further divided into clans.These clans are again are sub divided into sub-clans.
Mizo is the important language widely used by the local people of Mizoram.Along with that English is used in education and other interactions officially.Duhlian dialect was the first language of Mizoram and later it is known as Mizo.It is a mixture of few other languages.The Christian missionaries resided in Mizoram developed the Mizo script.The Writing of this language is a combination of the Roman script and Hunterian transliteration methodology with prominent traces of a phonetics based spelling system.In Mizo there are 25 alphabets they are A, AW, B, CH, D, E, F, G, NG, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, Ṭ, U, V, Z.In this state Hindi is a compulsory subject for all the students up to eighth standard.Besides Mizo Nepali is also spoken by many of the Nepali immigrants in the state.
About 87 % of the population in Mizoram are Christians.Among the population of Mizoram, the largest minority is Buddhists.They are followed by Hindus.Apart from them several thousands of people who have converted to Judaism.Muslims in the state are about 1.1% .The remaining 3,000 people in Mizoram state belongs to Sikhs, Jains and other religions.
In bringing the advancement to the industries Mizoram faces few difficulties.The main drawback for the industries is lack of proper transport.The other problems that are faced by the state are shortage of electricity, capital, telecommunication and export market access. Mizoram is having two industrial estates and one software technology, that is being established in Mizoram university.The state government has acquired 127 acres of land in Khawnuam for development of the Indo-Myanmar border trade township.
The christian missionaries have established the primary school in Aizawl during the year 1898.The state has higher literacy rates than average literacy rates for India.In India Mizoram is having the second highest literacy rate.There were about 3,894 schools in Mizoram.There were many educational institutions establishment under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education.It also includes universities, colleges and other institutions.In the Mizoram university there are 29 undergraduate departments including 2 professional institutions affiliated with the university.
The traditional festivals in Mizoram are celebrated around various stages of jhum cultivation.In the local language they are call it as Kut.There were many major and minor Kuts such as Chapchar Kut, Thalfavang Kut, Mimi Kut and Pawl Kut.The Chapchar Kut was the festival of spring.Thalfavang Kut was the festival celebrated after the completion of weeding of the jhum crop fields.Mimi Kut was the festival dedicated to ancestors after first maize crop was collected.Pawl Kut is celebrated at the end of harvest i.e., at the start of new year.Later after the Christianity has spread these festivals have slowly vanished.